The role of the Universe in Keeping Time
Methods of keeping track of time date back to ancient days, but it wasnt until the 19th and 20th centuries that the science behind more accurate timekeeping and how that relates to the universe around us was more understood — or at least investigated. Key players in science and mathematics also played an important role in trying to understand how time works. Prominent scientific figures such as Galileo and Dutch astronomer Christian Huygens led the understanding of time in the 16th and 17th centuries, but it was Albert Einstein, Carl Neumann, and the like who looked at absolute and mathematical time at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries and then questioned those theories even further to try to explain the workings of modern timekeeping.
Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was an English mathematician upon whose theory more investigation into time was based. Newtons law of inertia, which meant that one particle in space, not acted upon by other forces, continued to move in the same direction and would remain at the same speed, was the basis of Carl Neumanns (1832-1925) development of the inertial clock in 1883. He believed, however, that absolute time didnt rely upon absolute space. This meant the law of inertia given intervals which could be measured would measure absolute time.
At the beginning of the 20th Century it was Albert Einstein (1879-1955) who refuted the idea that time is absolutely defined and hypothesized that time is connected to the speed of light, thus giving birth to the theory of special relativity. Einstein reportedly said, My solution was really for the very concept of time, that is, that time is not absolutely defined but there is an inseparable connection between time and the velocity of light.
Gravity, Einstein discovered also has an impact on time. He observed that the passage of time is slower where there is more gravitational pull compared to where there is not as much. The Earths gravitational pull and rotation meant that a clock on Earth will loose about 1 one-billionth of a second per hour.
In the 20th Century we also have the discovery of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics had an impact on the understanding of time and introduced the idea that there are several dimensions that impact time.
As many scientific theories as there are related to time and how it is measured, it is still the basis of the quartz clock that has standardized how time is measured today. It relies on the theory that a quartz crystal will vibrate in an electric field at the same standardized frequency. These findings utilized the principles related to the way a mechanical and free pendulum works. (Link to article #3 on the pendulum.)
Even today, new ideas are emerging about time and its relationship to the universe. What is now and how does that impact the future and measure the past? Those were questions posed by Einstein himself and still at the forefront of research. Perhaps an understanding of now is outside the realm of science, as suggested by Einstein, and we must simple rely on the modern interpretation set forth by organizations like the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and their double pendulum clock to measure time.
Product Features:• Unlimited PCs – Install this tune-up utility on all the PCs in your household. • Performance Booster – Impr…
The perfect size to enjoy your morning beverage and the perfect gift for your loved ones that special day….
Popular Mechanics is where innovation meets inspiration, explaining the latest technology and how to use it in the world around us…
Ultra-simple vocal effects stomp box with reverb, echo and pitch correction. Gives you flexible, creative control in a battery-pow…
At last, a collection of smart, breakthrough lessons that help you teach your students all the essential editing skills they need …
* Arthur Bishop (Jason Statham) returns as the Mechanic in the sequel to the 2011 action thriller. When the deceitful actions of a cunning but beautiful woman (Jessica Alba) force him to return to the life he left behind, Bishop’s life is once again in danger as he has to complete an impossible list of assassinations of the most dangerous men in the world.
Tweets by TheMechanic
Tweets by TheMechanic
Mechanic: Resurrection (2016) – Official Trailer – Jason Statham, Jessica Alba & Tommy Lee Jones