by Berkeley Lab

Is Albert Einstein’s Special Relativity incompatible with the very equations upon which science’s greatest theory is built? New observations made by many scientists and engineers appear to contradict the great scientist’s ideas. Apparently there are implicit contradictions present within Relativity’s foundational ideas, documents and equations. One individual has even pointed that quotations from the 1905 document and Einstein’s contemporaries as well as interpretations of the Relativity equations clearly and concisely describe a confused and obviously erroneous theory. It is time therefore, for science to update its thinking on this theory with a comprehensive analysis of the history leading up to, during and after that revolutionary year of Special Relativity.

As this is the 100 year anniversary of the original release of Special Relativity, a review of the original assumptions, documents and ideas which led to the acceptance of this theory is timely and warranted. Every year millions of students are taught this theory without a critical analysis of Relativity. Relativity Theory consists of its two variants Special Relativity and General Relativity and is considered the cornerstone of modern physics.

Albert Einstein borrowed from the ideas of Fitzgerald, Lorentz and Voigt to create a new concept of the universe. His first work in this regard later came to be known as Special Relativity and contained many controversial ideas which today are considered axiomatic. Amongst these are Length Contraction, Time Dilation, the Twin Paradox and the equivalence of mass and energy summarized in the equation E=mc2.

This equation became the shining capstone of the new theory along with its first & second postulates, namely, that the laws of nature are the same from all perspectives and that the speed of light ‘c’ is constant in a vacuum regardless of perspective. Further, the theory also predicted an increase in mass with velocity. Numerous examples have been given of the ‘proof’ of the validity of Special Relativity.

Most notably, experiments using particle accelerators have sped particles to incredible velocities which apparently provide confirmation of Einstein’s theory. However, doubts remain in the scientific community who have never totally given up the comfort of a Newtonian world view. This is readily apparent in that they refer to the Newton’s ‘Law’ of Gravitation whilst Special Relativity (SR) and General Relativity (GR) are given the polite attribution ‘The Theory of’ or simply SR ‘theory’ and GR ‘theory.’ Einstein would continue working on the ideas of Special Relativity until producing the aforementioned even more controversial treatise.

In his later more comprehensive work called the Theory of General Relativity (1916), Einstein proposed a major re-thinking of cosmology. He conceived of a space time continuum that is curved by mass; in other words, planets, stars, galaxies and other stellar objects cause a curvature of space time. The movement of these objects are determined by the aforementioned curvature.

As a result of these ideas, our understanding of geometry, math, physics, science and the universe would never be the same. However, some scientists are reporting that speed of light is not constant from different experimental observations. One has even reported errors in the fundamental equations. If so, this would require a major rethinking of the known cosmological models and assumptions of modern physics.

**Cosmology**

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*Cosmology*

* The conventional view that time began at the big bang is often said to be based on what is known as Penrose Hawking singularity theorems. In our last film, Abhay Ashtekar and Ivan Agullo argued that a singularity is replaced with a bounce in quantum gravity. In this film, we interview Sir Roger Penrose, one of the authors of the conventional narrative who presents an alternative view which he calls CCC (Conformal Cyclic Cosmology). In CCC the big bang is not the ultimate beginning but it did not arise from a bounce; instead the universe rescales itself, losing track of how big it is as massive particles disappear (and hence the ability to measure space and time) in the remote future. This cyclic behaviour may be extended to the infinite past and future.

Whilst Roger Penrose and Vahe Gurzadyan’s claim that there was evidence for CCC in the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) was not accepted by the wider community, what’s less well known is that a new team led by Prof Krzysztof Meissner (University of Warsaw, CERN) has claimed a confirmation of CCC in a new study. We discuss this with Professors Penrose and Meissner and put to them many questions regarding this new model.

The film is intended for a lay audience that has an interest in cosmology and the origin of the big bang. The interviewees were asked to check a draft of the film to make sure they had not been taken out of context in the edit and there are no scientific mistakes.

Animation credits:

Big bang/expanding universe animation: Alex Bennett

Colliding galaxies: NASA

For more material read Roger Penrose’ book

Cycles of Time:

amazon.co.uk/Cycles-Time-Extraordinary-View-Universe/dp/0099505940

Technical paper on CCC from the Journal of Physics:

iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/229/1/012013

Paper claiming circles in the CMB:

link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepjp%2Fi2013-13022-4

Paper denying circles in the CMB:

arxiv.org/abs/1012.1305

Meissner’s paper claiming confirmation of circles:

arxiv.org/pdf/1307.5737.pdf

Ted Newman’s paper on CCC:

arxiv.org/abs/1012.1305

Sean Carroll’s article on CCC and debating William Lane Craig:

preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2010/12/07/penroses-cyclic-cosmology/

preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2012/09/25/let-the-universe-be-the-universe/

William Lane Craig podcast on CCC:

reasonablefaith.org/truth-free-will-and-cosmology

Music is by Sigur Ros and is used with permission. For permission , see this link:http://www.sigur-ros.co.uk/band/faq.php#13

Before the big bang 2 – Conformal Cyclic Cosmology explained

__Cosmology__