In quickly summarizing some of the opinions that were offered in the first article “Energy and Magnetics” Let There Be Light (Part 1) : The magnetic photon does possess effective-mass and energy. Symmetry can be broken, replaced with anisotropy and vector zero can be overcome. Work can be performed without the violation of Thermodynamic Laws. The virtual equal and opposite actions can be nullified or modified. There exists only one single fundamental phenomenon: light.
Quoting Maxwell, “The truth of the second law is statistical, not a mathematical truth, for it depends on the fact that the bodies we deal with consist of millions of molecules… Hence, the second Law of Thermodynamics is continually being violated, and to that considerable extent, in any sufficiently small group of molecules belong to a real body”. (J.C. Maxwell, Trait’s Thermodynamics II,” Nature 17, 278-280 [7 February 1878]).
The vacuum, or this universal-environment I prefer to call it, is all around us, one does not normally see it or feel it. Only when we distort this vacuum of space does its presence become very apparent. It stands to reason, it is possible to produce a net gain of energy, with no apparent input of energy by the operator. It appears true that it is physically impossible to build a system, magnetic or otherwise, that outputs more work than all the useable energy that is input to it, or made available to it. The best one could expect is simply approaching 100%. This applies to energy inputted either by the operator or by the environment.
That said, one also begins to realize that you can conform to all applicable electrodynamics laws of physics, and be in harmony with the law of Conservation of Energy, the laws of Electromagnetism, and other related Natural laws. Considering one of the basic principals, Newton’s third law; a virtual equal and opposite action for every action, and by applying a reaction that is additive to the original action.
With the appropriate geometry and by applying additional magnetic fields to select permanent magnetic fields. Instead of the action slowing down the system that created it, the reaction could add energy to the system. This is accomplished by changing the magnitude of one or more potentials. Change of a single potential is an asymmetrical change, and it also changes the net force field. The new force field can drive additional electron current, contributing some net useful work with the energy taken from the universal-environment, by the creating of an asymmetric action. Lee and Yang received the Nobel Prize for their prediction of broken symmetry, including that of opposite charges and therefore of any source or dipole.
These secondary virtual electric-fields can be induced by permanent magnets. With an asymmetrical configuration, acceleration of a rotor adds more angular momentum than the lessened back-drag forces takes away. There could be a net acceleration of the rotor on every pass. The multiple secondary virtual electromagnetic fields created are asymmetric, an induced magnetic motor could accelerate until its load drag deceleration force equals its magnetic acceleration net force. The result being the asymmetric fields creating a condition to self-rotate and power its load, using energy extracted from the universal-environment by the broken symmetry.
In this configuration, a violation of the Thermodynamic Laws does not exist. Any potential violation of Thermodynamics applies only to a closed system in near equilibrium. It doesn’t apply to an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This is effective only in an asymmetric approach. Virtually continuous motion exists throughout the Universe. Newton’s first law applies to continuous motion. Once an object is placed into a state of motion in space, it will continuously remain in that state of motion until acted upon by an intervening force to change its state of motion. A current without resistance once started, just keeps on going forever. The resulting coefficient-of-performance as understood is infinite.
In our model, picture a rotor moving through multiple magnetic fields. Specific multiple induced currents can prevent magnetic lockup and eliminate the magnetic back-drag when correctly applied. When this occurs there are virtually equal and opposite forces, multiple electric fields that coexist in space. Conventional thinking says they combine to eliminate each other. The presence of the magnetic field suggests that the fact the electric fields of individual charges in fact coexist. When the charge moves, the electric field moves with it.
When an electric current flows in a conductor, there is an imbalance in the random thermal velocities of the conduction band electrons. This is felt in the region beyond the conductor in the relative movement of the coexisting electric fields of the conduction band electrons and of the other charges of the crystal lattice of the conductor. It is this relative movement of the electric fields, which generates the magnetic field. The static electromagnetic field even of permanent magnets is thermodynamically a non-equilibrium steady-state system. The two dipoles, one electric and one magnetic, tell us clearly that something previously virtual has become observable, because of the proven broken symmetry of the opposite charges.
The presence of another force also exists, the dynamics of a slowing accelerated electron, in combination with the basic principals of relativity. We can use the Law of Motion of the electron in the instants of time. The conducting rotor which is also magnetic, and because of attracting magnetic poles is rotating through a dual magnetic field. Instantly, and before back-drag or lockup can occur motional electromotive force is induced. Since the magnetic flux linking the circuit increases in time, the EMF acts in the negative direction. Therefore acts in the anti-clockwise direction. This EMF drives an electric current of magnitude around the circuit.
In reference to the direction of the rotor movement, this torque is in the same direction. These two forces join to create another asymmetric situation. The only way in which the charge can acquire this energy is if something does work on it as it circulates. Only an electric field can exert a significant force on a slowly moving charge. In order to account for the motional EMF generated around the circuit, we need the charge to experience an upward force of magnitude. The only way in which this is possible is if the charge sees an upward pointing electric field of magnitude.
There is an electric field in the frame of reference of the moving rotor, and it is this field that does the necessary amount of work on the charges, moving around the circuit. Which is needed in order to account fro the existence of the motional EMF. Inducing the existence of motional EMF and an additional electromagnetic force combined with the production of forward torque on the rotor. Magnetic Flux is first and foremost, an undeniable form of energy. Join us for Part 3, coming soon.
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* UCI MAE 91: Introduction to Thermodynamics (Spring 2013).
Lec 01. Intro to Thermodynamics — Thermodynamics —
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Instructor: Roger Rangel, Ph.D.
License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA
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Description: This course introduces thermodynamic principles; open and closed systems representative of engineering problems; and first and second law of thermodynamics with applications to engineering systems and design. Topics include: thermodynamic concepts, thermodynamic properties, the first law of thermodynamics, first law analysis for a control volume, the second law of thermodynamics, entropy, and second law analysis for a control volume.
Recorded on April 2, 2013.
Required attribution: Rangel, Roger. Introduction to Thermodynamics 91 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/mae_91_introduction_to_thermal_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
Engineering MAE 91. Intro to Thermodynamics. Lecture 01.