Simply put, protein synthesis is the process by which nitrogen, from all of the amino acid building blocks found in a protein food, is linearly arranged into structural proteins through the involvement of RNA and other enzymes. Protein synthesis is muscle growth – the only way muscle can grow. The more efficient and streamline you can make the process, the more efficiently you can build muscle. This sounds simple, yet it’s anything but…
Proteins serve many functions and are vital to the body. Protein provides the structural support for cells and is the building block of muscle and almost all tissue. Whether catalyst for enzymatic reactions, or an architectural support mechanism, without protein, many of our systems would fail or become faulty.
Proteins are so widely used in cells, and serve so many diverse functions, it is literally indispensable. But how does protein get from Point A to Point B, and serve all of the many functions of the body?
Through protein synthesis.
Since the beginning of man and all life on earth and beyond, cells have had the ability to synthesize proteins in order to reproduce, replenish, or simply sustain life. They can produce new proteins or replace degraded ones. But in order to manufacture proteins, cells must follow a protocol of transcription that takes DNA and turns it into a copy of RNA (called mRNA) and then translates that mRNA into useable amino acid chains.
Protein synthesis begins in the cell’s nucleus where gene encoding is copied into RNA. This process of transference from DNA into RNA is called transcription.
Once the copy of the DNA is made and becomes mRNA, it has to be transported and read to the ribosomal mechanisms of the body. Ribosomes begin reading this mRNA sequence and converts the mRNA into the amino acid chains. tRNA is then used to read the mRNA sequence, 3 nucleotides at a time, that are housed on giant ribosomes that also contain more than 50 proteins.
The determination of the structures of ribosomes and their components has been one of the greatest achievements of biochemistry in recent years.
But with over 100,000 proteins to manufacture and process, how can the human body get it all right? It’s mind-boggling when one thinks of the amount of information the body needs to keep track of. But several factors enhance protein synthesis, such as good nutrition, quality complete protein, the appropriate assay of vitamins and minerals, enough carbohydrate to work with proteins to move through the cycle of energy and synthesis, and other environmental factors and variables, including sleep.
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* Ever wonder what the life of a science major, particularly a biochemistry student, is really like?
-Biochemistry, B.S. (May 2013)
California State University, Fullerton
Walking on Sunshine – Katrina and the Waves
Carmina Burana: O Fortuna – Carl Orff
Also Sprach Zarathustr – Richard Strauss
Rawhide Remix – Blues Brothers
Cats on Mars – Cowboy Bepop
Time (Inception) – Hans Zimmer
**the last scene is directly related to Inception**
i.e. dreams within dreams of trying to solve puzzles representing finishing that o chem hw in real life
A day in the life of a biochemistry student