Sodium chloride is commonly called as salt, common salt, table salt, or halite. It is an ionic compound having the structural formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt which is most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. It is mostly used as a condiment and food preservative.
Properties of Sodium Chloride
Molar mass of sodium chloride NaCl is 58.443 grams/mole.
It is white in color and it is a crystalline solid.
Sodium chloride do not have any odor.
Its solubility in water is varies at different temperatures.
The melting point of sodium chloride is 801 degree Celsius or 1074 degree Kelvin and its boiling point is 1465 degree Celsius or 1738 degree Kelvin.
Sodium chloride is very soluble in glycerol, ethylene glycol and formic acid.
The refractive index of Sodium Chloride NaCl is 1.5442.
Density of Sodium chloride is 2.165 grams per cubic centimeters.
The molecular weight of Sodium chloride is 58.45.
The Young’s modulus for NaCl is 39.96.
The most important property of sodium chloride is its inflammablility.
Uses of Sodium Chloride
1) Synthetic uses
With chlorine, the chloralkali process gives hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide. According to the chemical equation:
2 NaCl + 2 H2O ? Cl2 + H2 + 2 NaOH
Sodium metal is produced commercially by the electrolysis of liquid sodium chloride. This is mostly done in a Down’s Cell in which sodium chloride is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C.
Sodium chloride is used in chemical processes for the large-scale production of compounds which contain sodium or chlorine. In the Solvay process, sodium chloride is used for production of sodium carbonate and calcium chloride.
2) Biological uses
Many micro organisms cannot live in excess salty environment: water is drawn out of the cells by the process of osmosis. For this reason, salt is used to preserve some foods, like smoked bacon or fish. It can also be used to detach leeches which have attached themselves to feed. It is used for disinfecting wounds.
3) Optical uses
Pure NaCl crystal is an optical compound having a wide transmission range from 200 nm to 20 µm. It was mostly used in the infrared spectrum range.
NaCl crystal is soft and hygroscopic and inexpensive. When sodium chloride is exposed to free air, NaCl optics gradually covers with “frost”.
The term oxidation-reduction reaction actually refers to two chemical reactions which always occur at the same time: oxidation and reduction. Oxidation-reduction reactions are also termed more simply as redox reactions. Oxidation, reduction, and redox reactions these all can be defined in two different ways.
The simpler definitions pass on to reactions which involve some form of oxygen. As an example, pure iron can be obtained from iron oxide in a blast furnace by the reaction:
3 C + 2 Fe 2 O 3 ? 4 Fe + 3 CO 2
In this reaction, iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3) gives its oxygen to carbon (C). In chemical terms, the carbon is said to be oxidized as it has gained oxygen. At the same time, the iron oxide is said to be reduced as it has lost oxygen.
Due to ability to give away oxygen, iron oxide is termed as an oxidizing agent. Similarly, due to ability to take on oxygen, carbon is termed as a reducing agent. If one substance gives away oxygen then a second substance should be present to take on that oxygen.
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