Research is constantly being done on global warming. The research is being done by studying statistics and by going directly to the source. Various scientists are coming up with different answers to the most basic questions about global warming.
Some scientists studying global warming in the Arctic have discovered thinning sea ice near the northern reaches of Alaska. The summer of 2007 showed the least sea ice since sea ice was first tracked in 1979. Scientists participating in the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Gyre Exploration Project cruised aboard the Canadian Coast Guard’s ship, the Icebreaker, to see the effects of global warming for themselves.
When they reached the area where ice would usually be the thickest and heaviest, the ship sailed right through. When they did see ice, it was in a state of disintegration because of global warming. Most of the ice remaining was young ice, which is more vulnerable to thaw. The scientists took their data home to analyze during the colder months.
Another group, with the Arctic Modeling Group and the IJIS Research Group, set sail along the Alaskan coast in the Chukchi Sea. Their mission was to study different variables of the ocean water that might affect phytoplankton. They found that the water was warmer than the satellite statistics. The satellite showed 10 degrees Celsius, while their measurements showed 14 degrees Celsius. This is an example of global warming.
One study was done linking the Russian peat bogs with global warming. The bogs produce a large amount of methane gas. According to carbon dating that was done, this has been the case since the last ice age. Since methane is one of the greenhouse gases, this impacts global warming.
However, the studies also show that the peat bogs absorb carbon dioxide at an impressive rate. They contain the largest carbon stores on the planet. If the peat bogs dry up due to global warming, they would release this carbon dioxide into the air. The trade-off of carbon dioxide for methane would not be a good one, since methane stays in the atmosphere a shorter time.
Researchers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography have been busy proving that humans bear some culpability for the climate change in the oceans. They have done this both by observing and noting evidence, and by constructing computer models.
The computer models are based on the evidence that they do have, so they are thought to be quite accurate. With all the data in place, the evidence seems to point to definite global warming events. It also makes it clear that humans have played a part in causing this phenomenon.
An MIT professor has studied the effects of warming waters on hurricanes over the last fifty years. He studied statistics from past storms and generated computer models to test his theory. His specialty is meteorology, so his take on global warming is of interest. He found that the hurricanes have indeed been getting stronger since 1970.
Research is important to the field of global warming studies. It is only by knowing the problem in precise detail that people can adequately confront it.
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“DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEN BASIC TYPES OF CLOUDS, THEIR PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS, THEIR RELATIVE POSITIONS AND AVERAGE ALTITUDES, AND THEIR FLIGHT HAZARDS.”
US Army training film TF46-3724
Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts.
Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though far from perfect, is far less noisy than the original).
Clouds are classified according to their height above and appearance (texture) from the ground.
The following cloud roots and translations summarize the components of this classification system:
1) Cirro-: curl of hair, high. 3) Strato-: layer. 5) Cumulo-: heap.
2) Alto-: mid. 4) Nimbo-: rain, precipitation.
High-level clouds occur above about 20,000 feet and are given the prefix “cirro-“. Due to cold tropospheric temperatures at these levels, the clouds primarily are composed of ice crystals, and often appear thin, streaky, and white (although a low sun angle, e.g., near sunset, can create an array of color on the clouds).
The three main types of high clouds are cirrus, cirrostratus, and cirrocumulus.
Cirrus clouds are wispy, feathery, and composed entirely of ice crystals. They often are the first sign of an approaching warm front or upper-level jet streak.
Unlike cirrus, cirrostratus clouds form more of a widespread, veil-like layer (similar to what stratus clouds do in low levels). When sunlight or moonlight passes through the hexagonal-shaped ice crystals of cirrostratus clouds, the light is dispersed or refracted (similar to light passing through a prism) in such a way that a familiar ring or halo may form. As a warm front approaches, cirrus clouds tend to thicken into cirrostratus, which may, in turn, thicken and lower into altostratus, stratus, and even nimbostratus.
Finally, cirrocumulus clouds are layered clouds permeated with small cumuliform lumpiness. They also may line up in streets or rows of clouds across the sky denoting localized areas of ascent (cloud axes) and descent (cloud-free channels).
The bases of clouds in the middle level of the troposphere, given the prefix “alto-“, appear between 6,500 and 20,000 feet. Depending on the altitude, time of year, and vertical temperature structure of the troposphere, these clouds may be composed of liquid water droplets, ice crystals, or a combination of the two, including supercooled droplets (i.e., liquid droplets whose temperatures are below freezing).
The two main type of mid-level clouds are altostratus and altocumulus.
Altostratus clouds are “strato” type clouds (see below) that possess a flat and uniform type texture in the mid levels. They frequently indicate the approach of a warm front and may thicken and lower into stratus, then nimbostratus resulting in rain or snow. However, altostratus clouds themselves do not produce significant precipitation at the surface, although sprinkles or occasionally light showers may occur from a thick alto-stratus deck.
Altocumulus clouds exhibit “cumulo” type characteristics (see below) in mid levels, i.e., heap-like clouds with convective elements. Like cirrocumulus, altocumulus may align in rows or streets of clouds, with cloud axes indicating localized areas of ascending, moist air, and clear zones between rows suggesting locally descending, drier air. Altocumulus clouds with some vertical extent may denote the presence of elevated instability, especially in the morning, which could become boundary-layer based and be released into deep convection during the afternoon or evening…
Weather: “Know Your Clouds” 1966 US Army Meteorology Cloud Identification