A branch of physics which provides a mathematical description of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter is called Quantum mechanics (QM). It is also termed as quantum physics or quantum theory. It separates from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic levels. The name was coined by Max Planck. As an example, the angular momentum of an electron bound into an atom is quantized. An electron bound in an atomic orbital have quantized values of angular momentum but an unbound electron does not have quantized energy levels. In the reference of QM, the wave-particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provides view of the behavior of photons, electrons and other atomic-scale objects.
The mathematical calculations of quantum mechanics are abstract. The main part of the mathematical system is the wave function. The wave function is a mathematical function which can give information about the probable amplitude of position and momentum of a particle. The wave function emphasizes the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator.
History of Quantum Mechanical Model
The earliest versions of QM were formed in the first decade of the 20th century around the same time when the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light, updated by Einstein, first became accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be seen as “quantum theories” of matter and electromagnetic radiation. QM has undergone a significant re-formulation during mid -1920’s away from old quantum theory after the acceptance of the Copenhagen interpretation of Neil’s Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli and their associates. QM has been distributed into every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, and quantum optics and quantum information science.
Applications for Quantum Mechanical Model
1) The behaviour of individual particles that make up all forms of matter–electrons, protons, neutrons, photons and others–can be satisfactorily explained by quantum mechanics.
2) It is important for understanding that how individual atoms combine covalently to form chemicals or molecules. This application of quantum mechanics is known as quantum chemistry.
3) A mechanism of a working of resonant tunnelling diode device is based on the phenomenon of quantum tunnelling by the potential barriers. Examples are the laser, the electron microscope, and magnetic resonance imaging.
4) A research topic is quantum teleportation which deals with techniques for transmitting quantum information over arbitrary distances.
5) QM applies to the atomic regimes of matter and energy, but some systems exhibit quantum mechanical effects on a large scale; Super fluidity is the best example.
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