by David Illig
Thermodynamics is the field of physics that describes and correlates the physical properties of macroscopic systems of matter and energy by relating such qualities temperature, pressure, and volume. It also takes in energy, heat, and work. Thermodynamics was founded between 1850 and 1860 by R.W. Joule about the quantitative equivalence between mechanical work and heat.
Thermodynamics is much neater when the absolute temperature is used. Thermodynamics correlates, with mathematical equations, information relating to the interaction of heat and work. It does not speculate as to the mechanisms involved . Thermodynamics is the science of heat and temperature. It is part of physics (and physical chemistry) that was developed at the time of the industrial revolution.
Heat is a form of energy associated with the positions and motion of the molecules of a body. The total energy that a body contains as a result of the positions and the motions of its molecules is called its internal energy.
Heating the crystalline phase formed by rapid cooling causes its transformation into the phase observed by cooling slowly. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the existence of these two crystal phases in coenzymes Q9 and Q10 and the transformation from the rapidly crystallized form to the more ordered form associated with slower cooling rates.
Heat created externally is transfered to water in a steam generating unit or boiler. The steam carries energy to the expander (engine) were part of the heat energy is converted to mechinical energy, work. Heat-activated styling sprays, balms, lotions and mousses create exquisite looks on healthy protected hair. Meadow seed oil delivers intense, everlasting moisture and supple elasticity.
Systems already at a high temperature are less affected by increase in heat energy than those at low temperature. Systems are divided into three categories: an isolated system can exchange neither matter nor energy with its surroundings, a closed system can exchange energy but not matter, and an open system can exchange both energy and matter. The Earth, for example, is an open system, but might be considered closed if one neglected meteors, space probes, etc.
Molecular energy, mass, and momentum transport. Laminar transport of energy and mass. Molecules at interfaces with functional interfacial properties are of special interest. These interfacial molecules may have biomolecular functions at the micro and nanoscale.
Thermodynamics deals only with the large scale response of a system which we can observe and measure in experiments. Small scale gas interactions are described by the kinetic theory of gases. Thermodynamics is the study of energy changes accompanying physical and chemical changes.
The term itself clearly suggests what is happening — “thermo”, from temperature, meaning energy, and “dynamics”, which means the change over time. Thermodynamics is an empirical and phenomenological physical science concerned with the transfer of heat and the appearance and disappearance of work attending various conceivable chemical and physical processes.
Since it is a discipline that supplies science with a broad array of relationships between the properties that matter exhibits as it changes its condition, it plays an essential role in metallurgical engineering and materials science.
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* Intuition of how gases generate pressure in a container and why pressure x volume is proportional to the combined kinetic energy of the molecules in the volume. Created by Sal Khan.
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Thermodynamics part 1: Molecular theory of gases | Physics | Khan Academy